How-to guides

Use groups and hierarchies

Francis includes three different hierarchies: Rows, groups, and sections.
You can always drag n' drop rows/groups/sections to reorder your model, without any formulas breaking.


Rows work like regular rows in spreadsheets. You can create formulas that reference other rows and groups.


Groups are a way to organize rows and cannot be edited directly.
Groups will always sum the values of the rows placed inside it, and will automatically update as you drag n' drop rows in and out of the group (no need to update your formulas!).
Be wary of whether rows are placed correctly into groups! Groups will only sum rows that are placed inside it.
  • If you create arow via the button, the row is by default created at the bottom of the section at the highest hierarchy, i.e. outside any groups
  • If you create a row via a group's menu option "add new row," the row is automatically placed inside that group
  • If you create a row via the shortcut ⌘+⌥+N, the row is automatically placed below your current cell selection and adjusted to the hierarchy of your current selection


Use Sections to organize your model. Sections do not show any values and are purely for organizing purposes.
You can always reference formulas across sections.